Deeper defence cooperation within the EU via PESCO (permanent structured cooperation) was launched with great fanfare at the end of 2017.
Permanent structured cooperation (PESCO) is a ready-made instrument for further integration in the field of defence
PESCO is a political framework that aims to help EU countries develop military capabilities together and improve their ability to deploy them.
However, will these initiatives realistically advance EU defence?
The creation of PESCO, which has been often equated to the ‘Sleeping Beauty’ of the Lisbon Treaty has defied expectations.